The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of low- and high-volume static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching on fitness performance in young basketball players. Twenty-three healthy male basketball players (age, 13.6 ± 0.5 years old; weight, 60 ± 8.4 kg; height, 174.7 ± 7.5 cm; BMI, 19.6 ± 1.6; and basketball training experience 2.5 ± 0.5 years) performed 5 different warm-up protocols in randomly assigned order: (a) no stretching (NS), (b) low-volume static stretching (LVSS), (c) high-volume static stretching (HVSS), (d) low-volume PNF stretching (LVPNF), and (d) high-volume PNF stretching (HVPNF). The low- and high-volume protocols were completed with 2 and 4 sets of stretches respectively. Analysis of the data revealed that vertical jump, long jump and 4x15m standing start running performance declined significantly following LVSS, HVSS, LVPNF, HVPNF as compared to NS (p<0.05). Also, vertical jump, long jump and 4 x 15m standing start running performance were significantly reduced following HVSS as compared to LVSS (p<0.05). Vertical jump and 4 x 15m standing start running performance were significantly reduced following HVPNF as compared to LVPNF (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in flexibility following the 5 warm-up treatments. It appears that pre-performance static and PNF stretches (especially if they are high in volume) may negatively affect motor performance skills in young basketball players.
Warm-up, flexibility, motor performance skills, youth basketball
Download full article
- Alter, M. J. (1996). Science of flexibility (2nd edition). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
- Amiri-Khorasani, M., Sahebozamani, M., Tabrizi, K. G., & Yusof, A. B. (2010). Acute effect of different stretching methods on Illinois agility test in soccer players. Journal of Strength and Condition Research, 24(10), 2698-704.
- Andrejić, O. (2009). The impact of explosive muscle power and flexibility on situational mobility speed in young basketball players. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Niš: Faculty of Sports and Physical Education (in Serbian).
- Bradley, P. S., Olsen, P. D., & Portas, M. D. (2007). The effect of static, ballistic, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on vertical jump performance. Journal of Strength and Condition Research, 21(1), 223-226.
- Chiu, L. Z., Fry, A. C., Weiss, L. W., Schilling, B. K., Brown, L. E., Smith, S. L. (2003). Postactivation potentation response in athletic and recreationally trained individuals. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 17, 671-677.
- Church, J. B., Wiggins, M. S., Moode, F. M., & Crist, R. (2001). Effect of warm-up and flexibility treatments on vertical jump performance. Journal of Strength and Condition Research, 15, 332–336.
- Cornwell, A., Nelson, A., Heise, G., & Sidaway, B. (2001). Acute effects of passive muscle stretching on vertical jump performance. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 40, 307-324.
- Faigenbaum, A. D., Bellucci, M., Bernieri, A., Bakker, B., & Hoorens, K. (2005). Acute effects of different warm-up protocols on fitness performance in children. Journal of Strength and Condition Research, 19, 376-81.
- Faigenbaum, A. D., McFarland, J. E., Schwerdtman, J.A., Ratamess, N.A., Kang, J., & Hoffman, J. R. (2006). Dynamic warm-up protocols, with and without a weighted vest, and fitness performance in high school female athletes. Journal of Athletic Training, 41(4), 357-363.
- Fletcher, I. M., & Anness, R. (2007). The acute effects of combined static and dynamic stretch protocols on fifty-meters sprint performance in track-and-field athletes. Journal of Strength and Condition Research, 21, 784-787.
- Fletcher, I. M., & Jones, B. (2004). The effects of different warm up and stretch protocols on 20 meter sprint performance in trained rugby union players. Journal of Strength and Condition Research, 18, 885-888.
- Fowles, J. R., Sale, D. G., & MacDougall, J. D. (2000). Reduced strength after passive stretch of the human plantar-flexors. Journal of Applied Physiology, 89(3), 1179-1188.
- Gelen, E., Saygin, O., Karacabey, K., & Kilinc, F. (2008). Acute effects of static stretching on vertical jump performance in children. International Journal of Human Sciences, 5(1), 1-10.
- Jovanović, I. (1994). Basketball – theory and teaching methods. Niš: Publisher author (in Serbian).
- Little, T., Williams, A. G. (2006). Effects of differential stretching protocols during warm-ups on high speed motor capabilities in professional soccer players. Journal of Strength and Condition Research, 20, 203-207.
- McNeal, J. & Sands, W. (2003). Acute static stretching reduces lower extremity power in trained children. Pediatric Exercise Science, 15, 139-145.
- Nelson, A. G., Driscoll, N. M., Landin, D. K., Young, M. A., & Schexnayder, I. C. (2005). Acute effects of passive muscle stretching on sprint performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(5), 449-54.
- Rajpreet, K., Rajender, K., & Jaspal, S. (2008). Effects of various warm-up protocols on endurance and blood lactate concentration. Serbian Journal of Sports Sciences, 2(1-4), 101-109.
- Rubin, P. (2009). Effects of ten-day programmed training on specific-motor abilities of 15-year-old basketball players. Serbian Journal of Sports Sciences, 3(4), 135-144.
- Sallet, P., Perrier, D., Ferret, J. M., Vitelli, V., & Baveral, G. (2005). Physiological differences in professional basketball players as a function of playing position and level of play. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 45, 291-294.
- Sayers, A. L., Farley, R. S., Fuller, D. K., Jubenville, C. B., Capulto, J. L. (2008) The effects of static stretching on phases of sprint performance in elite soccer players. Journal of Strength and Condition Research, 22, 1416-1421.
- Siatras, T., Papadopoulos, G., Mameletzi, D., Gerodimos, V., & Kellis, S. (2003). Static and dynamic acute stretching effect on gymnasts’ speed in vaulting. Pediatric Exercise Science, 15, 383-391.
- Wallmann, H. W., Mercer, J. A., & McWhorter, J. W. (2005). Surface electromyographic assessment of the effect of static stretching of the gastrocnemius on vertical jump performance. Journal of Strength and Condition Research, 19(3), 684-688.
- Winchester, J. B., Nelson, A. G., Landin, D., Young, M. A., & Schexnayder, I. C. (2008). Static stretching impairs sprint performance in collegiate track and field athletes. Journal of Strength and Condition Research, 22(1), 13-19.
- Young, W. B., & Behm, D. G. (2003). Effects of running, static stretching and practice jumps on explosive force production and jumping performance. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 43(1), 21-27.
©2015 Sports Academy Belgrade. All rights reserved. Powered by Magma
Publication of this journal is financially supported by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Development Republic of Serbia.